In addition to keeping up with the online presence of larger news organizations, arab american media are forced to compete with usergenerated content that is rapidly available to audiences. The regions notoriously docile people, who have long. A year of revolution by npr staff december 17, 2011 tunisians protest outside the gates to the french embassy in tunis. Sustainable democracy and the paradox of the arab spring. The reasons and economic and political consequences of. Jan 27, 2016 by the time it became clear to the world that egypts arab spring had gone terribly wrong, that the seemingly hollywoodlike drama of goodguy protesters triumphing over badguy dictator had. While saudi arabia is extraordinarily wealthy through oil exports see a macroeconomic analysis of oil, egypt is in devout poverty living on public assistance from the united states. The balance of states, algeria, djibouti, jordan, kuwait, lebanon, mauritania, morocco, oman and saudi arabia, have experienced only minor changes, returning to or retaining a pre arab spring. Between expectations and disillusion henner furtig article outline 1 introduction 2 iranian foreign policy and the arab spring 3 reactions in the arab world 4 the struggle for the prerogative of interpretation of the arab spring inside iran 5 conclusion references. Why have the upheavals in tunisia, egypt, and libya followed such different paths. The reasons and economic and political consequences of arab.
Fouad ajami throughout 2011, a rhythmic chant echoed across the arab lands. The arab spring unexpectedly developed in late 2010 with peaceful protests in a number of arab countries against longstanding, entrenched regimes, and rapid political change across the region ensued. It is too optimistic to think that existing dilemmas can be easily resolved in this new and changing environment, but the arab spring may provide strong momentum for change. Like germany, england and france in the second world war, most of syria is destroyed. This paper argues that we ought to understand the arab spring as transformative revolutionary movement, but one that will be faced with numerous bumps in the road ahead. Mapping the obama administrations response to the arab spring. Pdf demystifying the arab spring parsing the differences. They also wanted more democracy, and end to corruption, and economic opportunity. Economic protests also took place in the gaza strip.
Understanding the arab spring university of warwick. Egyptian military is not only in charge of the defence of the country but also. What was meant to be an uprising for change turned into a bloody, brutal and endless civil war. The tumultuous events that have swept through the middle east during the last year or so were widely referred to in the west as the arab spring. The arab spring jason marshall introduction the arab spring is a blanket term to cover a multitude of uprisings and protests in the middle east that began in the winter of 2010 and continue today. The economics of the arab spring and its aftermath world bank. The goal of this article is to place the role that social media plays in collective action within a more general theoretical structure, using the events of the arab spring as a case study. Reasons for arab spring based on views in developing.
Washington must come to grips with these variations if it hopes to shape the outcomes constructively. In 2011 a wave of prodemocracy protests known as the arab spring spread across the arab world. The role of social media in the arab uprisings pew. Why middle east studies missed the arab spring the myth of. Analysis of the arab spring 3 blunders in state response, in particular using a heavyhanded approach and trying to crush opposition, had the reverse effect of galvanising more people to join the protests icg, 2011b and 2011d. However, the economic models chosen by the successive regimes were ineffective in. In libya, provincial leaders worked feverishly to strengthen their newly.
It skipped borders with ease, carried in newspapers and magazines, on twitter and facebook, on the airwaves of al. The political turmoil of the arab world was both unex pected and welcome, with a number of countries fi nally moving away from sclerotic authoritarian forms of. The arab spring uprisings are discussed in the context of rebellions in countries like south africa and serbia, while the libyan uprising is also viewed in terms of the negotiations it provoked within nato. The case of the arab spring, chiefly egypt and saudi arabia, shows the power of stable economies and ultimately wealth. Arab inequality puzzle, organized by the world anks mena hief economist office on april 27, 2015 in washington dc. Morocco and tunisia and the levant region lebanon, jordan and syria. Tunisia and the arab spring overview nc essential standards. Politics comes first gadi wolfsfeld 1, elad segev2, and tamir sheafer3 abstract the goal of this article is to place the role that social media plays in collective action within a more general theoretical structure, using the events of the arab spring as a case study.
A year of revolution a year ago, a tunisian fruitseller set himself on fire after being humiliated by a police officer. Pdf the middle east and north africa mena have long been laden with tensions and instabilities. This is an arab revolution 27 atlantic centrism 30 is cairo the next new york. The arab springs impact on the middle east has been profound, even if in many places its final outcome might not become clear for at least a generation. Inform students that they are going to learn about a recent struggle for freedom that took place during the arab spring in tunisia. Of the four major arab spring protests analyzedtunisia, egypt, libya, and bahrain. Demystifying the arab spring parsing the differences between tunisia, egypt, and libya lisa anderson lisa anderson is president of the american university in cairo 1. The economic consequences of the arab spring by mohsin khan atlantic council rafik hariri center for the middle east the popular uprisings that swept the middle east in early 2011 dramatically altered the political landscape of the region with the overthrow of autocratic regimes in egypt, libya, tunisia, and yemen. The unsexy truth about why the arab spring failed vox. The arab spring and its effects on the region, the united states, and the international community by devin m. Noted authorities writing specifically for this volume contribute chapters focusing on. Authoritarianism and democratization in the arab world. Egyptian revolution, also known as arab spring or arab uprising, was a shock for international community because egypt has been seen as one of the strongest military state in north africa region.
Geography, people, demographics, politics, and history before and after islam, with emphasis on demystifying the region, eliminating stereotypes, and providing illuminating context for issues of the day. The political economy of arab uprisings the web site cannot be. It is a prodemocracy demonstration which has been sweeping through middle east and north african since 2010. One of these sources was social media and its power to put a human face on political oppression. Why middle east studies missed the arab spring the myth of authoritarian stability by f. President barack obama declared that a great new chapter in history was emerging in the arab world. Abstract the arab spring began with an uprising in tunisia and subsequently spread to egypt. Introduction since 2011 the political landscape of the arab countries has been dramatically transformed by the events of the so called arab spring. Change and resistance in the middle east examines these revolutions and their aftermath. To politically analyze the neverending arab spring, is a difficult task today as the arab spring continues to evolve and change by daily events.
Demystifying social media and the arab spring we cant deny that social media contributed a pinch of salt to the grand dish brought together by a host of factors, but ultimately, all praise is due to the brave people of mena, the vast majority of who have no idea of. The reasons and economic and political consequences of arab spring 43 egypt, where arab spring lasted longer, is one of the largest countries in africa with its advantages such as its location, tourism revenues and logistics moaddel, 2012. In tunisia, protesters escalated calls for the restoration of the countrys suspended constitution. Guide to writing a dissertation on the arab spring il. Tendency amongst commentators and some scholars to view arab spring as a result of globalization of democratic norms, new media technologies, educated and globalised and digitalsavvy youth as main agent of change. The arab spring may have awakened the entire middle east with a taste of democracy in a few countries, but syria has seen the adverse effects of it. Five years after the arab spring, algeria, africas biggest country, has maintained some semblance of stability. The roots and causes of the 2011 arab uprisings kamal eldin osman salih abstract. The integration of syrias conflict with the arab uprisings, 201120. Aug 15, 2015 the arab countries discussed include algeria, bahrain, egypt, libya, morocco, syria, tunisia, and yemen.
Social media and the arab spring sage publications. Triggers, dynamics and prospects stephan rosiny on 17 december 2010, the selfimmolation of tunisian vegetable vendor mohammed bouazizi sparked the arab spring. Youth frustration and the arab spring 3 mohammed bouazizi, the young street vendor who set himself ablaze in public in late 2010, did not intend to start a revolution in tunisia. It both challenged the political status quo in the middle east and attempted to write a new chapter in the history of the region. Twitter, facebook and other new media offer ways for the arab american news media to reach audiences, but also pose a threat to smaller outlets. Arab spring research guide and notes sheet targets. This report assesses the impact of the arab spring on the mena region, drawing on briefings, reports. The 201820 arab protests, also referred to as the new arab spring, arab summer or arab spring 2. Its uprising also became one of the most consequential. Arab spring began in tunisia when a fruit vendor set himself on fire in protest in front of a government building.
His most recent works arethe international politics of the persian gulf2011, and innovation in islam. The arab spring s impact on the middle east has been profound, even if in many places its final outcome might not become clear for at least a generation. Home this guide lists online and print sources for what has become known as the arab spring, the popular revolutionary wave in the middle east and north africa that started in december 2010. Hundreds of thousands of tunisians took to the streets calling for an end to authoritarian rule. Dissatisfaction with government services in arab spring. Arab spring is a political concept that spread widely in the media and academic art publications. Demystifying the arab spring parsing the differences between tunisia, egypt, and libya lisa anderson in tunisia, protesters escalated calls for the restoration of the countrys suspended constitution. Justice, dignity, religion and international politics nurullah ard.
Avicious circle of mutually reinforcing negative repercussions muriel asseburg protests, revolts and the fall of decadesold leaderships have brought about political openings and the chance, at least in some arab. Issue brief aftermath of the arab spring in north africa exports, and 98 percent of government revenues. The violence sweeping across the arab world isnt a consequence of the arab spring, but of decades of dictatorship. This is an interesting index of unrest based off of the factors present in the initial arab spring.
Yemen became one of the first countries to experience the protests. Apr 01, 2012 this pioneering explanation of the arab spring will define a new era of thinking about the middle east. In this landmark book, hamid dabashi argues that the revolutionary uprisings that have engulfed multiple countries and political climes from morocco to iran and from syria to yemen, were driven by a delayed defiance a point of rebellion against domestic tyranny and. The protest has been referred to as the arab spring and for others. Understand the basics of the middle east quickly and objectively. Pdf the socalled arab spring or the arab awakening has caught the world middle eastern rulers and analysts of the region alikeoff guard.
Because of the countries vastly different cultures and histories, writes the president of the american university in cairo. Bali ucla school of law, nathan brown george washington university, jennifer canose nyu school of law, haider hamoudi university of pittsburgh school of. Aug 28, 2019 the arab spring was a series of antigovernment protests, uprisings, and armed rebellions that spread across the middle east in early 2011. The arab spring and political change in tunisia and egypt. Disturbances have ranged from protests to full civil war and the overthrow of government. Arab spring in tunisia and how the movement spread throughout the region. We focus on the arab countries in north africa algeria, egypt, libya. A new era of democratic expectations acss special report no. Between outreach, patronage and repression by silvia colombo. Parsing the differences between tunisia, egypt, and libya.
Relations, held in barcelona on 6th and 7th october 2011, distinguished analysts presented the results of their. The event set off uprisings across north africa and the. While the argument that the arab spring was the product of an angry arab youth. Constitutional courts after the arab spring 5 acknowledgements the authors of this report wish to thank anis abidi international idea, asl. Arab spring, political status quo, demonstration, relative deprivation. We are grateful to the workshop participants, especially francisco ferreira, martin ravallion, marcelo giugale, ana revenga, ravi kanbur, peter lanjouw, caroline freund, branko milanovic.
The media was awash with expectations of a secular democratic upheaval that was about to remove the dictators that had ruled much of. To gauge the class prior knowledge of the arab spring, ask for a show of hands as to how many students have heard the term arab spring on the news. Introduction the arab spring also known as the arab uprising is a revolutionary wave of protests that started in 2011 and spread throughout the arab world. What professor abusharif does here is place the arab spring moniker in the context of. Momani bessma arab spring a genuine revolutionary movement. This article appears in the foreign affairs cfr ebook, the new arab revolt.
By the end of the 1950s, most arab countries had gained their independence. The second part provides a historical overview of the major events of the arab spring in tunisia, egypt, libya, and yemen, while the third and fourth parts analyze the causes, features, and transition processes of the arab spring from huntingtons third wave perspective. Saudi arabia and the arab spring ren rieger gulf research center context, the decisive factors are geographic proximity, the nature of the concerned states political system, and the quality of the particular regimes relations with the kingdom and iran. Demystifying the arab spring uc san diego social sciences. But their purpose, relative success, and outcome remain hotly disputed in arab countries, among foreign observers, and between world powers looking to cash in on the changing map of the middle east. The gaddafi archives libya before the arab spring view gallery an exhibition of photographs, documents and artefacts from the human rights watch archive paints a portrait of libya in the four decades prior to the arab spring. Today, just as before the arab spring, womens rights groups in the arab world are fighting for rights set forth in the united nations convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women cedaw, the most comprehensive womens rights treaty, and are using it to demand government action. Understanding the arab spring nicola pratt, 24 november 2011 1.
Women and the arab spring 283 women and the arab spring. Toward better analysis of new media and the arab spring. Protests that spread across the region in early 2011 started a longterm process of political and social transformation, marked in the initial stages primarily by political turbulence, economic difficulties, and even conflict. This concept is used as an indication to a wide range of uprisings in the middle east and north africa mena region during the past two years. Guide to writing a dissertation on the arab spring posted on gennaio 1, 2015 by il discrimine in english version with nessun commento su guide to writing a dissertation on the arab spring. New media and conflict after the arab spring the web site cannot. Arab spring affected countries suffered even more due to the 2008 economic crisis. Mayjune 2011 comment demystifying the arab spring parsing the differences between tunisia, egypt, and libya lisa anderson lisa anderson is president of the american university in cairo 1. Rethinking western policies in light of the arab uprisings. Inequality, uprisings, and conflict in the arab world. The arab spring and its unintended effects in syria.
The spring proved fickle, but arabs are still yearning for it, says max rodenbeck. Arab spring research guide and notes sheet introduction. Meanwhile, egyptians rose in revolt as strikes across the country brought daily life to a halt and toppled the government. The arab spring therefore has demonstrated a strong regional dynamic. An index of unrest in the arab world by the economist online, february 9, 2011. Meanwhile, egyptians rose in revolt as strikes across the country brought daily life to a halt and. Nonetheless, irrespective of whether the 2011 arab spring will.
Mar 18, 2017 the arab spring unexpectedly developed in late 2010 with peaceful protests in a number of arab countries against longstanding, entrenched regimes, and rapid political change across the region ensued. In december 2010, protests began against the autocratic government in the northern african country of tunisia. Reflections from october 2011 to september 20 67 1. Gregory gause iii, foreign affairs, julaug2011, vol.
The armed forces played a decisive role in many of the arab uprisings, particularly the early ones. The arab spring and the saudiled counterrevolution by mehran kamrava mehran kamrava is director of the center for international and regional studies at georgetown universitys school of foreign service in qatar. He certainly could not have foreseen that he would motivate the peoples of the arab world1 to seek social change in the collection of demonstrations. Understanding attitudes and responses to the new middle east by benedetta berti from the outset, the arab spring has taken the world by storm. A bumpy road ahead pdf by hassan hakimian, director of the london middle east institute and reader, economics department, soas underscores the underlying importance of the economic conditions facing the new republics, such as egypt and tunisia, which are emerging as a result of the arab spring. Between the islamic state and the nationstate the brookings project on u. Thi s researc h articl e attempts to scrutinize the nature and cause s of the ara b uprising s which too k people by surpris e globall y throughou t 2011 and int o 2012. Within a few months, a wave of protest had swept away the despots of tunisia, egypt and libya. Tunisia and morocco are different in that they are more diversified and depend on agriculture, tourism, manufacturing, and mining. Blythe a thesis submitted to johns hopkins university in conformity with the requirements for.310 504 753 84 424 1455 704 427 512 19 335 1314 1336 575 1340 318 72 325 1539 437 1366 291 448 980 517 367 562 182 547 1164